Services Offered


We service tech companies, and tech-sector talent, in the following areas:


Blockchain & Smart Contracts

Initial coin offerings (ICOs) / initial token offerings (ITOs). Assessment of white papers, tokens and blockchain models for securities laws issues. Issues regarding privacy, trust, and duties among blockchain users and third parties. Agreements to frame smart contract intentions and mechanisms. Due diligence regarding smart contract development and execution (i.e. sufficiency of third party vetting). Algorithmic governance issues. Legal aspects of proof-of-work and proof-of-stake blockchain models. Disclaimers re smart contracts and blockchain forking. Agreements among or with full nodes.



Virtual currency regulations, including operation as a "money services business". Anti-money-laundering (AML) issues. Know Your Client (KYC) issues. Clearing and settlement system issues. Crypto trading and related tax issues. Crypto privacy issues. Securities issues including definitions of "security" and "marketplace". Crypto value manipulation issues. Mining coalition agreements.


IT Contracts

Licensing agreements. Co-development agreements. Co-marketing agreements. Software development agreements. Employee and independent contract agreements. Escrow agreements. Maintenance and support agreements. Cloud, SaaS and Fog computing agreements. Hosting agreements. E-mail and internet use policies.


Internet & E-Commerce

Internet contracts. User content issues. Terms of use. Cookie policies. Anti-spam legislation (CASL). Domain name transfer agreements. Social media policies. Electronic signatures. Competition law (promotional contests), and on-line advertising.


Procurement of IT Services

Requests for proposals. Statements of Work. Change orders. Amendments. Legal issues regarding deployment/roll-outs, and management processes. Issues regarding Ontario's Supply Chain Guideline (2009), and Broader Public Sector Procurement Directive (2011). Emerging issues from the Canadian Free Trade Agreement (2017). NAFTA and other international free trade agreement issues.



Secured and unsecured loan structuring, restructuring and negotiation. Private equity initial negotiations and term sheets. Issues regarding token offerings and crowdsourcing for fiat currency.


Company Meetings

Notices of Meetings. Meeting materials including proxy forms. Chairing meetings. Board, shareholder or creditor representation at meetings. Procedure enforcement. Board resolutions. Proxy contests. Other issues specific to board/shareholder/committee meetings.


Litigation & Arbitration

Civil disputes regarding contract, commercial, and negligence issues, including inadequate disclosures further to an ICO/ITO. Demand letters and case assessments. Examinations for Discovery. Motions. Mediations and pre-trials. Superior Court trials. Simplified procedure and Small Claims Court actions. Appeals to the Ontario Court of Appeal and Supreme Court of Canada. Private domestic/international arbitrations.